Thursday, April 18, 2024

Understanding Science How science REALLY works ..

Published research is rarely black or white and there are significant areas of uncertainty and debate among experts in areas such as, for example, climate change, insecticides and bee health, and badgers and bovine TB. The policy-makers err towards a consensus view rather than a sound understanding of the underlying science. Yet there is often a disconnect between our policy-makers and the scientific community.

Astrology: Is it scientific?

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Explore our digital archive back to 1845, including articles by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners. The first of these referred to the rate of heat loss from the earth and the length of time it would have taken to form its solid crust. The second referred to such topics as the detailed shape of the earth and the dynamics of the earth-moon system. The third referred to the heat of the sun, particularly the rate at which such heat is being lost, compared with the total amount of energy initially available. Water trapped in meteorites from the asteroid Vesta closely matches the composition of Earth’s oceans. Comets such as 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko have, in general, too much deuterium to be Earth’s primary water source. Alexander’s research, along with that of many others, builds a strong case for a chemical match between Earth’s water and chondrites’ water.

“You have to give all sides a fair hearing.” But that does not mean they have to be treated equally “if they don’t have the data.” To do so, he said, is false balance “that leaves readers out on a limb.” Born in England, Gwynne has written for a slew of American and foreign outlets.

As parsimonious as the evidence allows: Different ways of seeing color

She said she began researching and wondered if generative AI art was being used ethically in education. He explained that many students were hopeful for better translation between languages. McCray McGee put Squanto’s advice about using dead fish as fertilizer to the test in the family garden. Volunteers in the Ask an Expert Forums helped McCray and his family keep the project age-appropriate. With the help of Ask an Expert and a mentoring relationship with Science Buddies volunteer, Donna Hardy from Bio-Rad, Christina Wang completed top-level microbiology research and went to the Intel ISEF as both a sophomore and a junior. Science Buddies is dedicated to helping increase K-12 science literacy and fostering enthusiasm for science and science fair projects. We have several programs and opportunities for volunteers interested in sharing their own science expertise or interested in helping spread the word about Science Buddies.

They should be prepared to be proactive in explaining the nature of scientific evidence to those who ultimately make the policy decisions. Ongoing climate change driven by greenhouse gas emissions is often discussed in terms of global average warming. For example, the landmark Paris Agreement seeks to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees … They looked at how the removal of rapid Arctic warming would affect temperature projections in a plausible intermediate emissions scenario and calculated the average temperature projection across all models. The Arctic is currently warming nearly four times faster than the global average rate. The new study, published in the journal Earth System Dynamics, aimed to estimate the impact of this faster warming on how quickly the global temperature thresholds of 1.5C and 2C, set down in the Paris Agreement, are likely to be breached.

In the absence of giant planets, water delivery could happen naturally as planets pull in debris from different parts of the solar system. Recent observations from the Kepler space telescope suggest that planets the size of Jupiter are relatively uncommon around other stars. Electron microscopes differ from light microscopes in that they produce an image of a specimen by using a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light. Electrons have much a shorter wavelength than visible light, and this allows electron microscopes to produce higher-resolution images than standard light microscopes. Electron microscopes can be used to examine not just whole cells, but also the subcellular structures and compartments within them. Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē (“earth”) and -λoγία, -logia, (“study of”, “discourse”)) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

Time is relative

“What’s clear is we are a force of nature. Human activity – the burning of fossil fuels and land change – is having a massive influence. We are in the midst of this giant geoengineering experiment.” “When I wrote this story I did not see it as a blockbuster,” Gwynne recalled. “It was just an intriguing piece about what a certain group in a certain niche of climatology was thinking.”

He was one of the dominant physicists of his time, the Age of Steam. His achievements ran from helping formulate the laws of thermodynamics to advising on the first transatlantic telegraph cable. Harlow Shapley, who wrote an article in 1919 on the subject, was an astronomer, responsible for the detection of the redshift in distant nebulae and hence, indirectly, for our present concept of an expanding universe. Florian Cajori, author of the 1908 article “The Age of the Sun and the Earth,” was a historian of science and, especially, of mathematics, and Ray Lankester, whom he quotes, was a zoologist. S. Shelton was a philosopher of science, critical (as shown in his contribution, the 1915 article “Sea-Salt and Geologic Time”) of loose thinking and a defender of evolution in debates. That is the background to the intellectual drama being played out in this series of papers. It is a drama consisting of a prologue and three acts, complex characters, and no clear heroes or villains.

They hold a lot of ice that has been locked away within their interiors since the formation of the solar system. Some comets are occasionally thrown inward after a close brush with a planet or passing star. It makes sense that, during the chaos of the early solar system, Earth would have been pummeled with comets, bringing plenty of water to fill the oceans. Magnification is a measure of how much larger a microscope causes an object to appear. For instance, the light microscopes typically used in high schools and colleges magnify up to about 400 times actual size.

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